F-16 Fighting Falcon

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/F-16_Fighting_Falcon.png

The Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force. Designed as a lightweight, daytime Visual Flight Rules (VFR) fighter, it evolved into a successful multirole aircraft. The Falcon's versatility is a paramount reason it has proven a success on the export market, having been selected to serve in the air forces of 25 nations. The F-16 is the largest Western jet fighter program with over 4,400 aircraft built since production was approved in 1976.Though no longer being purchased by the U.S. Air Force, advanced versions are still being built for export customers. In 1993, General Dynamics sold its aircraft manufacturing business to the Lockheed Corporation, which in turn became part of Lockheed Martin after a 1995 merger with Martin Marietta.


The Fighting Falcon is a dogfighter with numerous innovations including a frameless, bubble canopy for better visibility, side-mounted control stick to ease control while under high g-forces, and reclined seat to reduce the effect of g-forces on the pilot. The F-16 has an internal M61 Vulcan cannon and has 11 hardpoints for mounting various missiles, bombs and pods. It was also the first fighter aircraft deliberately built to sustain 9-g turns. It has a thrust-to-weight ratio greater than one, providing power to climb and accelerate vertically — if necessary. Although the F-16's official name is "Fighting Falcon", it is known to its pilots as the "Viper", due to it resembling a cobra snake and after the Battlestar Galactica starfighter. It is used by the Thunderbirds air demonstration team.

http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/f16/images/falcon2.jpg

XCOR EZ-Rocket





The XCOR EZ-Rocket is a test platform for the XCOR rocket propulsion system. The plane is a modified Rutan Long-EZ, with the propeller replaced by first one, then a pair of pressure-fed regeneratively cooled liquid-fuelled rocket engines and an underslung rocket-fuel tank. The engines are restartable in flight, and are contained within Kevlar armour shielding for safety reasons. The EZ-Rocket is registered as an Experimental Aircraft.

Specification

Twin rocket engines
  • Two 400 lbf (1.8 kN) thrust rocket engines (non throttleable, restartable in flight)
  • 20 sec 500m takeoff roll
  • Vne = 195kt
  • climb rate = 52m/s (10,000 ft/min)
  • maximum altitude = 10,000 ft
  • Fuel : isopropyl alcohol and liquid oxygen
  • Chamber pressure : ~ 350 psi
  • specific impulse : 250 to 270 seconds
  • Noise: 128 dB at 10 meters

Lippisch Ente





The Ente (German: duck) was the world’s first rocket-powered full-size aircraft. It was designed by Alexander Lippisch as a sailplane and first flown under power on June 11, 1928, piloted by Fritz Stamer.

Specifications



General characteristics

  • Length: m (ft in)
  • Wingspan: m (ft in)
  • Height: m (ft in)
  • Wing area: m² (ft²)
  • Empty weight: kg (lb)
  • Loaded weight: kg (lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: kg (lb)
  • Powerplant: 2× Sander black powder rockets , kN (lbf) each

Performance

Rocket-powered fighters



The first rocket-powered aircraft was the Lippisch Ente, which made a successful maiden flight in March 1928.[2] The only pure rocket aircraft ever to be mass-produced was the Messerschmitt Me 163 in 1944, one of several German World War II projects aimed at developing rocket-powered aircraft.[3] Later variants of the Me 262 (C-1a and C-2b) were also fitted with rocket powerplants, while earlier models were fitted with rocket boosters, but were not mass-produced with these modifications.[4]

The USSR experimented with a rocket-powered interceptor in the years immediately following World War II, the Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270. Only two were built.

In the 1950s, the British developed mixed-power jet designs employing both rocket and jet engines to cover the performance gap that existed in existing turbojet designs. The rocket was the main engine for delivering the speed and height required for high-speed interception of high-level bombers and the turbojet gave increased fuel economy in other parts of flight, most notably to ensure the aircraft was able to make a powered landing rather than risking an unpredictable gliding return. The Saunders-Roe SR.53 was a successful design and was planned to be developed into production when economics forced curtailment of most British aircraft programs in the late 1950s. Furthermore, rapid advancements in jet engine technology had rendered mixed-power aircraft designs like Saunders-Roe's SR.53 (and its SR.177 maritime variant) obsolete. The American XF-91 Thunderceptor (which was the first U.S. fighter to exceed Mach 1 in level flight) met a similar fate for the same reason, and no hybrid rocket-and-jet-engine fighter design has ever been placed into service. The only operational implementation of mixed propulsion was Rocket-Assisted Take Off (RATO), a system rarely used in fighters.

Fighter Planes



A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed primarily to attack ground targets by dropping bombs. Fighters are small, fast, and maneuverable. Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, and some are dual-roled as fighter-bombers; the term "fighter" is also sometimes used colloquially for dedicated ground-attack aircraft. Fighter aircraft are the primary means by which armed forces gain air superiority over their opponents in battle. Since at least World War II, achieving and maintaining air superiority has been a key component of victory in warfare, particularly conventional warfare between regular armies (as opposed to guerrilla warfare). The purchase, training and maintenance of a fighter fleet represent a very substantial proportion of defense budgets for modern militaries.

Air Ambulance Pictures














































Air Ambulance

An air ambulance is an aircraft used for emergency medical assistance in situations where either a traditional ambulance cannot easily or quickly reach the scene or the patient needs to be repositioned at a distance where air transportation is most practical. Air ambulance crews are supplied with equipment that enables them to provide medical treatment to a critically injured or ill patient. Common equipment for air ambulances includes ventilators, medication, an ECG and monitoring unit, CPR equipment, and stretchers.

Air Ambulance Network provides a variety of Advanced Air Ambulance Transport Services from Critical Care to elective air medical transport. Services offered include; Private Air Ambulances including a wide range of aircraft from twin propeller to commerical jet airliners and everything in between.

Aircraft are equipped as flying mobile Intensive Care Units (ICU) and are capable of care for the most basic patient to the Critical Care patient. All aircraft are equipped with the most sophisticated advanced life support equipment to include; Zoll M Series 12 lead Cardiac monitor- defibrillator, full compliment of Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) drugs and all critical care medications and state of the art LTV 1200 series transport ventilator. Select aircraft are capable of being equipped with specialized equipment like Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) and Neonate incubators and our baby pod.

Air Ambulance Network can provide a wide range of services that are customized to the patients’ medical requirement and financial considerations.

Aircraft and flight crews

In most jurisdictions air ambulance pilots are required to have a great deal of experience in piloting their aircraft because the conditions of air ambulance flights are often more challenging than regular non-emergency flight services. After a spike in air ambulance crashes in the United States in the 1990s, the US government and the Commission on Air Medical Transportation Systems (CAMTS) have stepped up the accreditation and air ambulance flight requirements, ensuring that all pilots, personnel, and aircraft meet much higher standards than what was previously required.[19] The resulting CAMTS accreditation, which applies only in the United States, includes the requirement for an air ambulance company to own and operate its own aircraft. Some air ambulance companies, realizing it is virtually impossible to have the correct medicalized aircraft for every mission, instead charter aircraft based on the mission-specific requirements.

Medical staffing

The medical crew of an air ambulance varies depending on country, area, service provider and by type of air ambulance. In those schemes operating under the Anglo-American model of service delivery, the helicopter is most likely to be used to transport patients, and the crew may consist of Emergency Medical Technicians, Paramedics, flight nurses, a Respiratory Therapist, or in some cases, a physician. Those services with a primary focus on critical care transport are more likely to be staffed by physicians and nurses. In the Franco-German model, the aircraft is much more likely to be used as a method of delivering high-level support to ground-based EMS. In these cases, the crew generally consists of a physician, often a surgeon, anesthetist, trauma specialist or similar specialty, accompanied by a specially-trained advance care paramedic or nurse. In these cases, the object is the rapid delivery of definitive care, occasionally even performing emergency surgical procedures in the field, with the eventual transport of the patient being accomplished by ground ambulance, not the helicopter.

Medical control

The medical crew of an air ambulance varies depending on country, area, service provider and by type of air ambulance. In those schemes operating under the Anglo-American model of service delivery, the helicopter is most likely to be used to transport patients, and the crew may consist of Emergency Medical Technicians, Paramedics, flight nurses, a Respiratory Therapist, or in some cases, a physician. Those services with a primary focus on critical care transport are more likely to be staffed by physicians and nurses. In the Franco-German model, the aircraft is much more likely to be used as a method of delivering high-level support to ground-based EMS. In these cases, the crew generally consists of a physician, often a surgeon, anesthetist, trauma specialist or similar specialty, accompanied by a specially-trained advance care paramedic or nurse. In these cases, the object is the rapid delivery of definitive care, occasionally even performing emergency surgical procedures in the field, with the eventual transport of the patient being accomplished by ground ambulance, not the helicopter.

Equipment and interiors

Most aircraft used as air ambulances, with the exception of charter aircraft and some military aircraft, are equipped for advanced life support, and have interiors that reflect this. The challenge in most air ambulance operations, and particularly with helicopters, are the high ambient noise levels and limited amounts of working space, both of which create significant issues for the provision of ongoing care. While equipment levels tend to be high, and very conveniently grouped, it may not be possible perform some assessment procedures, such as chest auscultation, while in flight. In some types of aircraft, the aircraft's design means that the entire patient will not be physically accessible in flight. Additional issues occur with respect to pressurization of the aircraft. Not all aircraft used as air ambulances in all jurisdictions have pressurized cabins, and those which do typically tend to be pressurized to only 10,000 feet above sea level. These pressure changes require advanced knowledge by flight staff with respect to the specifics of aviation medicine, including changes in physiology and the behaviour of gases.

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Partenavia PN68





VH - PNV
Type PN68B
Year 1975
Engine 2 x Lycoming IO-360 - AIB
Power 2 x 200hp
Class IFR
Seating 6
TAS 145 knots
MTOW 1990 kg
BEW 1348 kg
Fuel Capacity 389 lts Mains, 162 lts Aux
Fuel Flow 75 lts/hr
Equipment 2 x Comm, 2 x ILS, 2 x ADF, Garmin 430 GPS, Auto pliot
Restrictions Multi-Engine & Type Endorsement & 150 hrs
Available For Charter, Joy Flights, Aerial Fire and Whale spotting
Hourly Rate $516.00 Solo
$612.00 Dual



Beechjet 400A

BEECHJET 400 / 400A




Specs and Performance

Seating:(Std/Max) 6/7
Lavatory: Enclosed
Maximum Speed: 434 mph
Maximum Range: 1500 nm


Description

The Raytheon Beechjet is a premier executive business light jet. The Beechjet 400 is a newly refined model of the Mitsubishi Diamond 2. With luxury seating for six or seven, this aircraft is perfect for executive or leisure jet charter. The Beechjet 400A is similar to the model 400 but exceeds it by expanded cabin space, newly designed interior, and higher maximum takeoff weight. The Beechjet 400A served as the model for the military aircraft known as the T-1 Jayhawk tanker and transport aircrew trainer.

Eurocopter AS33




Country of origin
France

Type
Medium lift utility helicopter

Powerplants
AS 332L - Two 1325kW (1755shp) Turboméca Makila turboshafts driving a four blade main rotor and five blade tail rotor. AS 332L2 - Two 1375kW (1845shp) takeoff rated Turboméca Makila 1A2 turboshafts.

Performance
AS 332L - Max cruising speed 277km/h (150kt). Max inclined rate of climb 1810ft/min. Hovering ceiling in ground effect 9840ft. Range 850km (635nm). AS 332L2 - High speed cruise 277km/h (150kt), economical cruising speed 252km/h (136kt). Rate of climb at 130km/h (70kt) 1447ft/min. Hovering ceiling out of ground effect 9380ft. Range with max fuel, economical cruising speed and no reserves 1490km (805nm), with standard fuel and same conditions 850km (460nm). Endurance 4hr 54min.

Weights
AS 332L - Empty 4370kg (9635lb), max takeoff 9000kg (19,840lb). AS 332L2 - Empty 4686kg (10,331lb), max takeoff 9300kg (20,502lb).

Dimensions
AS 332L - Main rotor diameter 15.08m (49ft 6in), length overall rotors turning 18.70m (61ft 4in), fuselage length 15.52m (50ft 11in), height overall 4.92m (16ft 1in). AS 332L2 - Main rotor diameter 16.20m (53ft 2in), length overall rotors turning 19.50m (63ft 11in), height overall 4.97m (16ft 4in). Main rotor disc area 206.1m2 (2218.7sq ft).

Capacity
Flightcrew of one (VFR ops), or two (IFR ops) pilots. AS 332 seating for 17, AS 332L and AS 332L2 max seating for 24.

Production
Military and civil orders for all variants of the Super Puma total more than 540.


Variants

  • AS 331 - Prototype.
  • AS 332A - Commercial pre-production version.
  • AS 332B - Military version.
  • AS 332B1 - First military version.
  • AS 332C - Production civil version.
  • AS 332C1 - Search and rescue version, equipped with a search radar and six stretchers.
  • AS 332F - Military anti-submarine and anti-ship version.
  • AS 332F1 - Naval version.
  • AS 332L - Civil version with uprated engines, a lengthened fuselage and more cabin space, plus increased fuel.
  • AS 332L1 - Stretched civil version, with a long fuselage and an airline interior.
  • AS 332L2 Super Puma Mk 2 - Civil transport version, fitted with Spheriflex rotor head and EFIS.
  • AS 332M - Military version of the AS 332L.
  • AS 332M1 - Stretched military version.
  • NAS 332 - Licensed version built by IPTN, now Indonesian Aerospace (PT. Dirgantara Indonesia).

Agusta A109 Mk II



Description

Agusta 109A MKII.+ As seen from the images this helicopter is a fine example of a well maintained aircraft. It was certified December 1988 and in service October 1989. As always a delight to fly and a firm favourite with your clients.

Interior

Brown Leather. Rated 7. Always VIP.

Exterior

Overall white with Blue and Gold stripes. Rated 7.

Time Status

Ser No. 7416 Totals:
Time since new2407
Cycles since new4188
Engine# 1# 2
C20/R Time since new24072407
Time since Mini Turbine94319

Avionics

  • Dual Collins VHF-22 Comms
  • Dual Collins VIR 32 NAVs
  • Collins ADF 60
  • Dual Collins TDR-90 Transponder
  • Magellan GPS
  • Sperry Auto-Pilot
  • Pilots Sinngle Tube EFIS

Options.

  • Freon Airconditioning "ADVANCED FLIGHT SYSTEMS INC"
  • Shoulder Harnesses
  • 3M Stromscope
  • CHIP Dectector System
  • SAFT 2026 NiCAD Battery
  • VIP Interior

HELICOPTERS









AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

Introduction Most of modern passenger and military aircraft are powered by gas turbine engines, which are also called jet engines. There are several types of jet engines, but all jet engines have some parts in common . Aircraft gas turbine engines can be classified according to (1) the type of compressor used and (2) power usage produces by the engine.
Compressor types are as follows:
1. Centrifugal flow
2. Axial flow
3. Centrifugal-Axial flow.
Power usage produced are as follows:
1. Turbojet engines
2. Turbofan engines.
3. Turboshaft engines.
Centrifugal Compressor Engines
Centrifugal flow engines are compress the air by accelerating air outward perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the machine. Centrifugal compressor engines are divided into Single-Stage and Two-Stage compressor. The amount of thrust is limited because the maximum compression ratio.





Principal Adventages of Centrifugal Compressor
1. Light Weight
2. Simplicity
3. Low cost.
Axial Flow Compressor Engines
Axial flow compressor engines may incorporate one , two , or three spools (Spool is defined as a group of compressor stages rotating at the same speed) . Two spool engine , the two rotors operate independently of one another. The turbine assembly for the low pressure compressor is the rear turbine unit . This set of turbines is connected to the forward , low pressure compressor by a shaft that passes through the hollow center of the high pressure compressor and turbine drive shaft.




Advantages and Disadvantages
Adventages: Most of the larger turbine engines use this type of compressor because of its ability to handle large volumes of airflow and high pressure ratio.
Disadvantages: More susceptable to foreign object damage , Expensive to manufacture , and It is very heavy in comparision to the centrifugal compressor with the same compression ratio.
Axial-Centrifugal Compressor Engine
Centrifugal compressor engine were used in many early jet engines , the efficiency level of single stage centrifugal compressor is relatively low . The multi-stage compressors are some what better , but still do not match with axial flow compressors. Some small modern turbo-prop and turbo-shaft engines achieve good results by using a combination axial flow and centrifugal compressor such as PT6 Pratt and Whitney of canada which very popular in the market today and T53 Lycoming engine.





Characteristics and Applications

The turbojet engine : Turbojet engine derives its thrust by highly accelerating a mass of air , all of which goes through the engine. Since a high " jet " velocity is required to obtain an acceptable of thrust, the turbine of turbo jet is designed to extract only enough power from the hot gas stream to drive the compressor and accessories . All of the propulsive force (100% of thrust ) produced by a jet engine derived from exhaust gas.


Turboprop
engine derives its propulsion by the conversion of the majority of gas stream energy into mechanical power to drive the compressor , accessories , and the propeller load. The shaft on which the turbine is mounted drives the propeller through the propeller reduction gear system . Approximately 90% of thrust comes from propeller and about only 10% comes from exhaust gas.

The turbofan engine : Turbofan engine has a duct enclosed fan mounted at the front of the engine and driven either mechanically at the same speed as the compressor , or by an independent turbine located to the rear of the compressor drive turbine . The fan air can exit seperately from the primary engine air , or it can be ducted back to mix with the primary's air at the rear . Approximately morethan 75% of thrust comes from fan and less than 25% comes from exhaust gas.


The turboshaft engine : Turboshaft engine derives its propulsion by the conversion of the majority of gas stream energy into mechanical power to drive the compressor , accessories , just like the turboprop engine but The shaft on which the turbine is mounted drives something other than an aircraft propeller such as the rotor of a helicopter through the reduction gearbox . The engine is called turboshaft.